Kronologi ini saya copas dari buku Conflicts in the Middle East
since 1945, Beverley Milton-Edwards and Peter Hinchcliffe
1945 End of Second World War.
1946 Lebanon achieves full independence from France.
1947 (November) UN adopts Partition Plan for Palestine.
1948 (May) The outbreak of the first Arab–Israeli war and birth of the
Palestinian refugee issue.
1950 Jordan annexes the West Bank.
1951 (July) King Abdullah of Jordan assassinated at the Temple Mount in
1952 Free Officer Coup in Egypt. Gamal Abdel Nasser becomes President
1956 (October) Suez crisis following nationalization, brings Britain, France
and Israel into military confrontation with Egypt.
1957 (January) Eisenhower Doctrine issued by US government.
1958 US marines land in Beirut at request of President Chamoun following
1963 (March) Ba’ath Party to power in Syria following coup d’etat.
1964 The Palestine Liberation Organization founded by Egypt.
1967 (June) Six Day War. Arab armies defeated, Israel occupies
Palestinian, Syrian and Egyptian territory.
1968 (January) Fatah, the Palestinian resistance movement led by Yasser
(July) Ba’ath Party coup in Iraq.
1970 (September) President Nasser dies and Anwar Sadat becomes
(September) Civil war in Jordan as Palestinian resistance forces and
Jordanian armed forces clash.
(November) Hafez al-Assad becomes President of Syria.
1973 (October) Yom Kippur war brings Egyptian and Syrian troops
into confrontation with Israel. Israel defeats the Arab armies once
1974 (March) Autonomy foisted on Iraqi Kurds by Saddam Hussein.
1975 (April) Outbreak of the Lebanese civil war.
1976 (January) Syrian army enters Lebanese arena.
1977 (November) President Sadat of Egypt pays historic visit to Jerusalem.
1978 (March) Israeli forces invade Lebanon.
(September) Israel and Egypt sign Camp David Peace Accords.
UN establishes multi-national peacekeeping force (UNIFIL) for South
1979 (January) Revolution in Iran. Shah is toppled and Ayatollah Khomeini
returns from exile.
1980 (September) Outbreak of the Iran–Iraq War.
1981 (October) President Sadat of Egypt assassinated by Islamic militants.
1982 (June) Israel invades Lebanon.
(September) Massacres in Palestinian refugee camps of Sabra and
Shatilla in Lebanon by Phalangist allies of Israel.
1983 (May) Israeli–Lebanese Accords signed.
1984 (March) Israeli–Lebanese Accords abrogated.
1985 (January) Israel withdraws some troops from Lebanon.
1986 (April) US raid on Libyan capital of Tripoli.
1987 (December) The outbreak of the Palestinian uprising (Intifada).
1988 (March) Iraq uses chemical weapons on Iraqi Kurds at Halabja.
(July) King Hussein abrogates annexation of West Bank.
(August) Ceasefire agreed between Iran and Iraq.
1989 (October) Ta’if Peace Agreement brings civil war in Lebanon to an
1990 (August) Saddam Hussein orders Iraqi troops to invade and occupy
1991 (February) Allied Forces successfully end Iraq’s occupation of
Kuwait. Outbreak of Kurdish and Shi’a Uprisings in Iraq.
(October) First multi-lateral peace conference on the Arab–Israeli
dispute held in Madrid.
1993 (September) Israel and the PLO sign the Oslo Accords establishing
Palestinian autonomy and agenda for final status negotiations.
1994 (August) Yasser Arafat returns to Gaza.
(October) Israel and Jordan sign a peace treaty ending conflict.
1995 (November) Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin assassinated by Jewish
right-wing fanatic at a Peace rally in Tel Aviv.
1996 (March) Palestinian Islamists embark on a suicide bomb campaign
(June) Israelis elect right-wing Likud leader Binjamin ‘Bibi’
Netanyahu as Prime Minister.
1999 (February) King Hussein of Jordan dies. His son Abdullah is crowned.
(June) Former Army general Ehud Barak elected in Israel as Prime
Minister on pro-peace process platform.
2000 (May) Israeli troops withdraw from South Lebanon and its local proxy
the South Lebanon Army collapses.
(June) Hafez al-Assad of Syria dies. His son Bashar elected
(September) Following the visit by Israeli Likud leader to Temple
Mount and al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem Palestinian protest and
Israeli violence leads to a subsequent Israeli declaration of ‘time out’
from the peace process and the second Intifada is announced.
(October) Al-Qaeda attack on USS Cole moored in Yemeni waters.
2001 (September) al-Qaeda, led by Usama Bin Laden, launch attacks on
New York and Washington.
(October) Allied alliance begins military operations against
(November) Kabul falls.
(December) New interim administration led by Hamid Karzai takes
2002 (April) Israel reoccupies West Bank and the government of Ariel
Sharon declares Yasser Arafat an ‘enemy of the state’.
(June) President George W. Bush recognizes that two states must form
solution to Palestinian–Israeli conflict.
(November) UNSCR 1441 passed against Iraq and weapons of mass
2003 (March) War against Iraq launched by Allied forces led by the United
States of America.
(April) Baghdad falls and the regime of Saddam Hussein collapses.
(June) Leader of Algeria’s outlawed Islamic Salvation Front (FIS)
Abassi Madani and his deputy Ali Belhadj are freed after serving
(December) Saddam Hussein captured in Tikrit.
2004 (March) Suicide bomb kills 140 in Karbala and Baghdad
(April) Abdelaziz Bouteflika is elected to a second term as President
of Algeria in a landslide poll victory.
(September) UN Security Council resolution – aimed at Syria –
demands that foreign troops leave Lebanon. Syria dismisses the
move. Parliament extends pro-Syrian President Lahoud’s term by
three years. Rafiq Hariri resigns as Prime Minister.
(November) Yasser Arafat dies.
2005 (January) Mahmoud Abbas elected President of the Palestinian
National Authority. Elections in Iraq.
(February) Former Syrian Prime Minister Rafik Hariri assassinated
(March) Hundreds of thousands of Lebanese attend pro- and antiSyrian rallies in Beirut.
(August) Israeli evacuation of the Gaza Strip.
2005 (September) In Algeria voters support reconciliation referendum
including an amnesty for many of those involved in post-1992
(December) Elections in Iraq.
2006 (January) Hamas wins majority of seats in Palestinian Legislative
Council and form government. Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon
collapses and falls into a coma. Ehud Olmert appointed to replace
(July) Israel attacks Lebanon following Hizballah raid on Israeli
(November) Ministers from Hizballah and the Amal movement
in Lebanon resign shortly before the cabinet approves draft UN
plans for a tribunal to try suspects in the killing of former Prime
(December) Saddam Hussein executed in Iraq. Hundreds of thousands of opposition supporters demonstrate in Beirut to demand the
resignation of the government led by Fouad Siniora.
2007 (January) US government announces new strategy for Iraq.
(February) Mecca Declaration ends inter-factional fighting and
leads to formation of Palestinian government of national unity.
Suicide bomb in Baghdad kills more than 130 people. Fighting
between Hamas and Fatah in Ramallah and Gaza.